Designating all salary as housing allowance? Is it legal? It is advisable?
This is hot topic of discussion on this website and other church accounting sites. It can be a perplexing and frustrating issue for many church administrators because of the vast interpretation of the law regarding housing allowances.
So I am going to break down this heated discussion and then let you do your own research and come to your own conclusion with the facts of this debate.
But first let me give you a little background of what promoted me to write about designating all salary as housing allowance even though it always stirs up so much debate…
Last month, I wrote an article on payroll issues titled: How to Properly Manage Payroll.
I received a lot of comments and questions over that article, but surprisingly many of them were not over the issues I covered in that article, but over a quote from a CPA, Bill O’Connell:
“Most bi-vocational (or poorly paid) clergy should not be receiving salary – only housing allowance. Thus some churches may be able to stop running payroll all together – at least until they pay more than the pastors housing allowance.”
I received several inquires asking me to elaborate on his comment and if his comment would apply to their church such as this one from Tina:
“We are a very small church and are only able to pay our Pastor $500 a month. Can we designate all of his salary as housing allowance?”
I replied back that from my research on the topic, this would be permissible and even advisable.
Section 107 of the Internal Revenue Code states that:
“In the case of a minister of the gospel, gross income does not include (1)the rental value of a home furnished to him as part of his compensation; or
(2)the rental allowance paid to him as a part of his compensation, to the extent used by him to rent or provide a home and to the extent such allowance does not exceed the fair rental value of the home, including furnishings and appurtenances such as a garage, plus the cost of utilities."
The tax code doesn’t spell out exactly how much of a
qualifying minister’s salary can be designated as a housing allowance;
however, there are some guidelines to go by.
1.) A minister can only claim the lesser of the following as a housing allowance exclusion:
So designating all compensation as housing allowance that is more than the lesser of the amounts stated above would be counter-productive.
2.) Your church must designate an definite amount.
IRS Pub 517: "The church or organization that employs you must officially designate the payment as a housing allowance before it makes the payment. It cannot determine the amount of the housing allowance at a later date. If the church or organization does not officially designate a definite amount as a housing allowance, you must include your total salary in your income."
3.) Look up and study past Tax Court cases regarding housing allowances such as Holmes v. Commissioner, T.C. Summary Opinion 1010-42. In
that particular case, the Tax Court ruled that the pastor’s housing
allowance was not subject to income taxation even though the amount was
over 95% of his total church compensation.
The pastor was able to
prove that the $13,000 he received annually as his housing allowance did
not even cover all of his eligible housing expenses, so the court upheld his housing allowance exclusion.
Personal observation: I believe that in order for a church to designated all salary as housing allowance, their qualifying minister should be bi-vocational and/or have other sources of income such as spousal income to pay other expenses.
Even CPAs and tax professionals can’t agree on whether it is legal or not to designate all salary as a housing allowance.
Someone posted this comment on this site a couple of years ago and it sparked quite a debate:
"I attended a tax seminar last year on church income, taxes, payroll etc. Housing Allowance was a major topic and they said that only up to 1/2 of your total salary could be for housing allowance and that it was against the law to count your entire salary as housing allowance..."
I went to a church tax conference that said the same thing. I figured the guy was a CPA and should know what he was talking about, so when I wrote an article (many years ago:) regarding housing allowances, I mentioned that you couldn't designate more than half of a minister's compensation as a housing allowance.
Had a reader tell me I was wrong and ... I was.
I then thoroughly researched it and that gentleman at the conference was wrong.
You can designate 100% of a minister's salary for a housing allowance!
There is no law that says you cannot and experts in church tax law such as Richard Hammar J.D., LL.M., CPA...states in his book Church & Clergy Tax Guide, "No limit has been placed on the amount of a minister's compensation that can be designated by a church as a housing allowance (assuming that the amount is reasonable)."
This man knows the IRS tax code forward and backwards. But even with my high respect for the man...I don't take what one man says as the absolute right answer...I did my own research and he is right...there is nothing in the IRS code that puts a limit on the amount.
After posting my comment I received this reply from another poster:
"I have been practicing accounting as a CPA for 11 years. I highly recommend ALL ministers consult with a LICENSED professional when seeking tax advice.
See IRS Publication 517 as well as Minister & Compensation Housing Allowance Q&A on the IRS's website:
If you are a minister and receive as part of your salary (for services as a minister) an amount officially designated as a rental allowance, you can exclude from gross income the amount that is used to provide or rent a home.
The exclusion is limited to the lesser of the 1) fair market rental value of the home (including furnishing, utilities, garage, etc.) 2) the amount officially designated (in advance of payment) as a rental or housing allowance, or the actual amount used to provide a home, and 3) CANNOT EXCEED WHAT IS REASONABLE PAY FOR YOUR SERVICES.
Therefore you could NOT designate 100% of your salary to housing allowance."
My reply to him:
I respectfully disagree.
I am not a LICENSED professional; however, I am an accountant that knows how to research and find answers. I have researched your references stated in your comment. Nowhere in those references or in the IRS tax code does it state that a church cannot designate all. salary as housing allowance.
I think what we both can agree on is that a housing allowance cannot exceed what is reasonable, but most of the readers of this site are administrators of small churches. Many have ministers that have secular jobs because the church cannot pay them very much.
Now if a minister did not have another job or other sources of income to pay his "other" expenses, I could see where the IRS would question a 100% housing allowance.
So the "designating all salary as housing allowance" debate rages on:)
Bill O'Connell, the CPA I used to work for at Wisdom Over Wealth, stated that "in certain circumstances designating all salary as housing allowance is not only acceptable but encouraged" such as with the reader I talked about in the beginning of this article.
If your church is not able to compensate your minister more than $500 or $1000 a month and the lesser of these three amounts:
...exceeds that amount, why shouldn’t you designate all salary as housing allowance? It is more tax beneficial to the qualifying minister and more cost effective for the church as they would not have to hire a payroll service to handle the minister’s compensation.
So I’ll end this commentary on this note. Research, research, research!
Don’t take my word for it, don’t take that church conference presenter's word for it, and even though it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed professional such as a CPA…don’t take their word as the absolute gospel as we are all humans and can make mistakes. It doesn’t help that the IRS doesn’t spell it out in black and white either…but they are known for making simple … complex:)
Church and Clergy Tax Guide by Richard Hammar
The Minister’s Housing Allowance by Pension and Benefits USA
Do you have a question or comment regarding designating all or most of a minister's compensation as a housing allowance? Share it!
The following comments, tips, and Q/A were provided by FreeChurchAccounting's generous readers:
Youth minister housing allowance
Can our youth minister have his entire salary in housing allowance since he is bi-vocational?
What is the housing allowance cap?
We are a small congregation less than 40 persons. In the past we have not designated a 'Housing allowance' and given the pastor a 1099-Misc for the …
Hourly Employee Housing Allowance
We have a part-time associate pastor who we are looking to convert to hourly (rather than PT salary). Currently, a portion of his salary is allocated as …
100% of salary as housing allowance.
I am moving to a congregation that is providing a monthly salary of $4200. I have some disability income, social security as well as my wife works …
Retired Pastor still working but not being paid.: what tax advantages are there?
Enjoyed reading your useful advice for pastors. I’m a retired pastor who still evangelizes, disciples, counsels, mentors, consults, and coaches a minimum …
housing more than box 1
Tax preparer here..I have a client that shows box 14, housing allowance. Box one, shows taxable amounts that are LESS than the amount in box 14. Should …
1st year of a New Church Plant with all Pay designated as Housing
100% housing is paid to our pastor, we are a new church and are wondering what forms is the small church required to file with IRS or SSA. By the way, …
FICA being withheld from Housing Allowance.
I am working on a tax return for a minister who is an employee of the church and receives a housing allowance. On the w-2, the housing allowance in included …
Won't 100% housing allowance avoid the church having to pay FICA?
If board approval says that they are only going to pay the pastor 100% housing allowance, without payroll, than this would avoid the church having to pay …
how can church pay social tax for a pastor who only receives housing allowance
We are a brand new church. we only pay a pastor for housing allowance. In this case, how can church report social tax (medical tax) for pastor? …
How to handle voluntary Fed and State tax withholding for pastors with 100% salary as housing allowance
I am the treasurer for a small church. We have 2 employees, both pastors, who have elected to be employees for tax reporting purposes. Due to their …
Can our pastor be paid in cash for his housing allowance as a one time yearly payout?
Can our pastor be paid in cash for his housing allowance as a one time yearly payout?
100% salary as housing allowance would look better for a NON-bivocational preacher?
Personal observation: I believe that in order for a church to designated all salary as housing allowance, their qualifying minister should be bi-vocational …
Eligibility for tax-exempt Housing Allowance
How does a church confirm if their (part-time) minister is recognized as such by the IRS and is thus eligible for a housing allowance?
Are salary and gross income the same?
We pay our ministers certain stipends. We pay a stipend for FICA and one for cell phone use that is included in his income and reported on the W2. …
Self-employed pastor per guidelines with 100% housing allowance
My question: Schedule C Expenses must be allocated against tax free income such as housing allowance. Assume the pastor falls within guidelines as …
collecting SSDI and taking a Sr. Pastor Position do I have to report Housing allowance
I have been collecting SSDI for 20 years, I have Muscular Dystrophy, I was asked to take over as Sr. Pastor of a small church. The church wants to …
Remodeling and Pastor's Housing Allowance
I am in the process of remodeling an old house for my wife and me to live in for retirement. I am presently serving a small rural congregation. …
100% of church pay is housing allowance. So how do I report mileage?
My church is very small. Both my pastor and I (assistant) are paid housing allowances, but no salary. Our housing allowances are less than our annual …
Housing Allowance and Minimum Wage Requirements?
I see a lot of questions here related to clergy housing allowances and how much should and/or can be applied for a clergy's compensation. My question …
Reporting Housing Allowance
I agree with your reasoning. Are ministers to receive a W2 with only housing allowance listed in Box 14? I did read the answer to this question in a submission …
How to report 100% Housing allowance
If a church were to pay its pastor a small amount and designate it all as housing allowance, such as in your $500 / month example above, how would it be …
State tax law and minister housing allowance
I understand that the IRS allows that housing allowance is not included in gross income. But what about state tax laws. Do they follow the IRS guideline …
"designating all salary as housing allowance" debate rages on
Our small church is lucky enough to own a parsonage. How much would that affect designating funds as housing allowance? The fair market value is quite …
As a minister, can i have 2 different housing allowances from different sources of income
I am currently employed part time as a pastor with a portion of it set as a housing allowance. I have recently starting drawing a portion of my United …
Housing allowance from Separate Churches
How do you calculate the housing allowance clause if you pastor to separate churches?
Housing Allowance and Medical ONLY
I am a bivocational pastor of a small church. The church has grown to the point where they are able to start thinking about a small compensation package …
Reporting Housing Allowance
What form do I use to report housing allowance for a bi-vocational pastor that receives no salary (only housing allowance)?
Housing Allowance reporting
so when filling out W3 form we wouldn't include the Pastor's housing allowance as wages if all the salary that the Pastor is receiving is the Housing Allowance? …
Exemption From Self-Employment Tax and Housing Allowance
I just read your article regarding the exemption of Housing Allowance from gross income. I'm a bi-vocational minister at a local church who is compensated …
Can part time pulpit speakers receive housing allowance?
We no longer have a fulltime minister on salary. We have part time speakers who do not serve the duties of a full time minister. Can these part time speakers …
Can a year end bonus be considered a bonus on housing allowance?
If a pastor is only paid housing allowance but we are able to give him a year end bonus, can that bonus be considered housing or does it have to be considered …
Pastor is retiring, but still receiving only housing Allowance. Do I give him a W2, and file it with IRS, or do I just write a letter to him with the …
housing allowance designated in my wife's name
Can my housing allowance be paid to my wife since she works with me and lives in our home too?
We are a small church who offered our new Pastor our parsonage to which he declined. Is our church still required to pay a housing allowance?
Paying Housing Allowance AND providing a parsonage w/utilities
Our church provides our pastor with a parsonage and utilities, free if charge. He is also paid a salary per week. He wants to have all of his salary …
100% housing allowance
We have a bi-vocational pastor. He is an established teacher at a pubic school. All of his bi-vocational church salary, $42,000, is deemed a housing allowance. …
Housing allowance with no church salary
I am an ordained Assembly of God pastor of a very small new church. I do not get paid anything from the church. I teach at the local middle school. Can …
How to report Housing Allowance (only) on a W-3
If you report 100% of the pastoral donations as housing allowance, how would you fill out a w-3 form if the minister is the only employee with no other …
How much of our remodel expense can be disignate as housing allownace
My minister husbands annual salary is $30,764. In 2016 we did home improvement/remodel to our kitchen and deck that total $40,000. We took out a home equity …
Salary and housing allowance
We pay our Pastor 400 weekly and 300 month housing allowance. His housing is more than 300 month. Do we show wages the amount paid and housing allowance …
Questions About Housing Allowance
We have questions about how to handle housing allowance. My wife and I are ministers being paid by a 501c3 and we have income from other sources than …
I live in Georgia and was told by a person that does church payroll, that if a pastor has a housing allowance that a W-2 is not necessary but to write …
Re: Designating All Salary as Housing Allowance Debate Rages on:
When you designate all salary as housing allowance, how will W2 look like as there is no wages and taxes (assuming that there is no withholding) - all …
Sale of a Personal Residence
If a minister purchased their home with a housing allowance, do they still get to benefit from the exclusion from income related to gains on the sale of …
1099-misc income as housing allowance?
Our church gives us help with our rent, but issued a form 1099-misc for this income. My husband is a licensed lay minister in the church. Can we still …
My salary is 15,000 a year. I know my housing allowance is going to be more than that. My mortgage alone is about 18,000. I guess my question is can I …
Reporting 100% Housing Allowence
I asked this somewhere else- but now I realize that may have been the wrong spot. I receive 100% of compensation as HA as it does not cover my reasonable …
What form should a church give a minister to use in filing taxes; where all income is designated as Housing Allowance?
I pastor a small rural church. What form should I receive from the church to file taxes with; when all income is designated as Housing Allowance?
Housing Allowance: Church vs. Minister
Is there any legal reason the church cannot designate the salary as 100% housing allowance, so long as the minister, when paying the SE and income taxes …
what about a W-2?
So, if I have a bi-vocational pastor who we only paid $500/month, all of which we designated as housing, do I issue him a W-2 with the $6000 listed in …
Spending Large Savings to Build
My husband and I have saved a significant amount of money to build a garage apartment. When we choose to begin the process it will exceed the amount of …
Housing Allowance Amendment
Can a housing allowance be amended during the year? For instance, the pastor runs into a major repair that was not anticipated when the housing allowance …
Is this the same as what is known as a "rabbi account"?
We have a church in the area that pays the pastor using what they call a "rabbi account". On a monthly basis the church puts a certain amount of funds …
Who is considered a "Minister"
How does the IRS define who can receive the housing allowance. "What is the definition of a a Minister" according to the IRS. I worked at a church as …
What are the IRS reporting requirements?
I've been a treasurer/bookkeeper for a number of very small churches and in several of them I have let the pastor (church voted on it) choose to designate …
The comments above are for general information purposes only and do not constitute legal or other professional advice on any subject matter. See full disclaimer.