Basis for preparing and understanding financial statements:
be easy to read so any person studying them will understand your organization’s financial picture;
be brief and to the point so that the person studying them doesn’t get lost in the details;
cover all the activities of the organization;
have a comparison such as a budget or data from a corresponding period of the previous year;
be prepared in a timely manner.
financial report for your church members will usually just consist of
the contributions and expenses. Financial reports for department heads
in a nonprofit might only contain information relating to their
department. However, most financial statements are prepared for
the church board or governing body and financial institutions.
The two principal financial statements for a church or small nonprofit are the Statement of Activity and
the Statement of Financial Position. The Statement of Cash Flows is sometimes required for larger churches and nonprofits.
The order in which the statements are normally prepared and the nature
of the data presented in each statement are as follows:
Statement of Activity
(Statement of Revenue and Expense)—a summary of your organization’s
support and revenue, expenses, and changes in net assets for a specific
period of time, such as a month or year. The Statement of Activity, also known as the Statement of Revenue and Expenses, reflects a church or nonprofits' support and revenue, expenses, and changes in net assets (fund balances) for a certain period of time such as month, quarter, or year.
It shows the church or nonprofit’s source of income and how they used their resources. The form of the statement will depend on the type and size of an organization and the accounting method used. However, the statement must show the changes in restricted, temporary restricted, permanently restricted and total net assets.
Statement of Financial Position
(Balance Sheet) — shows assets, liabilities, and net assets as of the end of a period such as a month, quarter, or year. Because it shows how the two sides of the accounting equation (Assets –Liabilities = Net Assets) it is often referred to as a balance sheet.
Statement of Cash Flows
—a summary of the cash receipts and cash payments for a specific period of time, such as a month or a year.
*Learn more about financial statements for churches, recording financial transactions, and basic accounting concepts in the
Basic Church Accounting ebook.